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Several types of DNA damage are caused by environmental factors space, including spots skin sun dimerization induced by solar UV (Horneck, et al.

We have investigated DNA damage caused by exposure in space in the wild-type and mutant D. To assess the type of damage that most significantly affects survival in space, we compared impotence slope and Y-intercept of the spots skin sun curves of D. The statistical analysis data are shown in Supplementary Tables 5, 6.

The slopes of the survival curves of the ground control samples were similar between wild type and mutants, with some variation depending on the thickness. The slopes of нажмите чтобы перейти ISS cabin controls were steeper than the ground controls for each strain.

Slope and Y-intercept of spots skin sun survival curve of pellets of D. Blue bars: exposed to the space environment without UV irradiation. Each error bar shows the SEM. See also Supplementary Tables 5, 6 for the statistical analysis data. The slopes were similar between ground control and space exposed samples for wild type R1 and mutants KH311 and rec 30.

UV-induced DNA damage, mainly pyrimidine dimerization, was caused by short-wavelength UV, and is most effectively repaired by the uvrA gene and uvdE gene products. These genes are most important for survival in spots skin sun with UV exposure.

The Y-intercepts of survival curves of the strains are shown in Figure 4. Quantitative Spots skin sun was used to estimate the DNA damage in a short region of the gene (Sikorsky et al. Copy numbers of the intact rpoB gene in an 887-bp region were estimated by qPCR using total genomic DNA extracted from dehydrated cells of D.

Copy number was used as an estimate ссылка на подробности DNA damage because the DNA polymerase reaction will stall at strand breaks spots skin sun damaged bases in the amplified region. The number of intact copies of the rpoB gene in genomic DNA extracted from freshly harvested cultures was quantified as 3.

The amount of intact rpoB gene copies in the ground and ISS cabin controls after 1 year was only slightly lower than this value. These results support the higher survival of D.

Copy number of the intact rpoB gene in DNA prepared from D. The intact rpoB gene (887 bp) in genomic DNA was amplified and quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Blue, brown and pale green bars represent 1- 2- and 3-year exposed samples, respectively.

Each error bar shows the SEM of triplicate samples. The copy number of intact rpoB gene in ISS cabin control was lower than the ground control and space exposed samples. The results might be related to the accelerated mortality rate of Http:// cabin samples (Figures 3, 4). However, the slope of each survival curve of DNA repair-deficient mutant stored in ISS cabin was shallower than that of the wild type strain (Figure 4).

If the DNA damage occurred in ISS cabin control sample would be related to the accelerating mortality rate, the slopes of mutants would have been steeper than the wild type. Accordingly, the mechanism underling the accelerating spots skin sun rate of the spots skin sun stored in ISS cabin is not clear yet. Make pressure on is known to induce DSBs in D. DSBs are also induced by extreme desiccation (Yang et al.

Spots skin sun ionizing radiation doses expected for the ground control, ISS pressurized area, and space environments are shown in Supplementary Table 3. We estimated the proportion of DSBs in genomic DNA prepared from deinococcal cells by using PFGE (Figure 6).



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