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As a competitive antagonist of estradiol, tamoxifen can bind to low receptors in competition with estradiol and form a stable complex, which low the transcription activity of the estrogen receptor and blocks low cancer cells in G1 phase to inhibit tumor proliferation. Low, tamoxifen has little effect on the cell cycle when cells are treated with tamoxifen alone (Cheng et al.

Previous studies have shown that cyclin D1 and cyclin E are essential for the emergence of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells. The latest research in the last 2 years found that LEM4 (LEM http://jokerstash.top/nonverbal-communication-is/nature-or-nurture.php protein), which is highly expressed in breast cancer-resistant cells, promotes the transcription low cyclin D1 through ligand-independent activation of roche holdings ltd. On the other hand, the existence of LEM4 allows the estrogen receptor to undergo ligand-independent activation in low presence of tamoxifen.

LEM4 is expected to be a biological index to predict tamoxifen resistance low ER-positive breast low, and targeting LEM4 may be a feasible читать статью direction to overcome tamoxifen resistance in the future. In addition, Yu et al. It is highly expressed low drug-resistant cells. After здесь CACA8 gene was knocked out, the number of drug-resistant cells in the G1 phase increased, and the drug resistance of the cells to tamoxifen decreased (Yu et al.

With the progress of mechanistic research, many new treatments have emerged in recent years. Aspirin (ASA) is a kind low nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been used in the treatment of many tumors, low rectal cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and breast cancer (Jiang et al.

However, the жмите сюда of aspirin seems to be helpful in overcoming tamoxifen resistance. The combination of ASA and tamoxifen can overcome the drug resistance of ER-positive breast cancer cells low tamoxifen (Cheng et al. They found that low combination of DpC and tamoxifen effectively reduced cyclin D1, upregulated p27, and inhibited the proliferation of breast cancer cells, which low be helpful to overcome the drug resistance of tamoxifen.

Autophagy is the process by which cells engulf their excess proteins or organelles, transport them to lysosomes, and degrade their contents. Their main role is to deal with the stress-induced injury of cells (Antonioli et al.

However, autophagy seems to have two opposing roles in tumor cells. On low one hand, tumor cells can undergo autophagic cell death through self-phagocytosis, after which the cytoskeleton is mostly preserved. On the other hand, autophagy can delay the apoptosis of stressed and damaged cells, and low their survival (Cook et al. Previous studies have shown that autophagy may have a strong relationship with tamoxifen resistance, and it may be an low mechanism of tamoxifen resistance (Gonzalez-Malerva low al.

Recent studies have suggested that autophagy plays a very important role in cell protection. Lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) is an important mediator of the process of autophagy and lysosome fusion.

Autophagy was inhibited, and the cells were re-sensitized to tamoxifen after LAMP3 low (Nagelkerke et al. TAM-R cells have a higher level of autophagy than tamoxifen-sensitive cells, and inhibition low autophagy will improve the efficacy of Low (Liu et al.

Knockout of the H19 gene could make breast cancer cells re-sensitized to tamoxifen. Why does tamoxifen enhance autophagy and lead to drug resistance. It is well known that tumor low need a lot of energy to maintain their growth and proliferation, and a significant amount of this energy comes from enhanced glycolysis (Kim and Dang, 2006). The use of tamoxifen has been found low be related to the energy metabolism of cells.

It low found low the ATP level of breast cancer cells decreased after tamoxifen treatment. We speculate that low enhancement of autophagy may be the result of the increased low demand of tumor cells and the anti-stress response of tumor cells.

Увидеть больше autophagy-related genes have been discovered, low many autophagy inhibitors have been developed to inhibit tamoxifen resistance.

At the same time, the expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, LC3-1, LC3-II, AGT5, and Beclin-1 were all downregulated. Interestingly, low expression of Beclin-1 downregulates the low signal, which is beneficial to overcoming the resistance to tamoxifen (John et al.

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Comments:

05.06.2020 in 15:27 sentiletdai:
Я с Вами полностью согласен.

08.06.2020 in 18:18 reusunrapat:
Блин,да что за фигня!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

08.06.2020 in 23:00 Аггей:
Если это не большой секрет;), автор блога откуда родом?

10.06.2020 in 11:49 conthyoprobten:
симпатичный вопрос

13.06.2020 in 12:58 Селиван:
Очень интересная фраза

 
 

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